The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. T-JULY Women Sandals Summer Fashion Fur Hollow Gladiator Wedges shoes Woman Slides Peep Toe Solid Lady CasualThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,T-JULY Women Fish Mouth Buckle Strap Lace Sandals Ankle High Heels Sandals Party Open Toe shoesT-JULY Women Fur Slippers Platform Fashion Winter Warm Wedge shoes Woman Slip on Flats Female Slides AllhqFashion Women's Mixed MaterialPull On Round Closed Toe Low Heels Pumps-shoesUirend Fancy Dress for Women - Ladies Over The Knee Boots Block Heel Fur Lined Warm Winter Casual Slim Biker Bootsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Women Mule Pointed Toe Slippers Slide Slip On Flats Warm Fluffy Fur Crystal Indoor Outdoor shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. T-JULY Fashoin Summer Women's Beach Sandals Wedges Platform Wood Ladies Sexy Clog Wooden Slippers Flip FlopsTDA Women's Autumn Winter Retro Casual Velcro Faux Suede Leather Chunky Heels Ankle Martin BootsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,T-JULY Womens Ladies Fashion Wedge Bohemia Diamond Platform Walking Sandals Slip on Comfy Dressy SlippersPLAN B High Top LED shoes Light up USB Charging Flashing Sneakers for Women Men-(White-11 B(M) US Women 8.5 D(M) USmen)WeenFashion Women's PU Kitten-heels Pointed-toe Boots with MetalWeenFashion Women's Closed Round Toe Kitten-Heels Soft Material Solid Pull-on Pumps-shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Rieker Womens Lace up Boots Anthracite fumo), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. T-JULY Women Crystal Sandals Ladies Fashion Peep Toe Square Med Heel Hollow Out Zip-up Casual shoes for Spring Summer), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Nafanio Women Summer Sandals Flats shoes Female Flower Flip Flops Floral Jelly Beach PVC Slippersand Women's Opaque Knee High Stockings). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, WeenFashion Women's Soft Material Zipper Open Toe Kitten-Heels Solid Wedges-SandalsWANabcMAN Comfortable Women's Pattern Pointy Stiletto High Heels shoes Zebra Stripe 42during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Stay real Women Girls Punk Silver Cone Rivets shoes Lace Zipper Knee High Boots Canvas shoes Dance shoesJushee Womens Juguida 6 cm mid-Heel Ankle Pull-on Patent-Leather BootsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Ash Pearl Cloud White Clear orange adidas Women's CrazyTrain LT Training shoesYUhe2018Cw Yu He Women's Petty Ankle Bootie blueeAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Colnsky Concise Mid-Calf Short Platform Heel CN Size 34-46 Plus Size Motorcycle BootsBellamarie Helena-12 Women Ankle Strap Platform Pump Stiletto Party Dress Heel.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Fanture Women's House Slippers Micro Suede Faux Fur Lined Indoor & Outdoor Slip On House shoesRiverberry Women's Claire Crisscross Strap Open Flat Sandals LifeStride Womens Parigi Dress Pump PumpQupid Plateau 183BX Women's Casual Faux Suede Knee High BootThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Yellow Box Womens Sailina SandalAN Womens Wedges Platform Zipper Microfiber Flats Sandals DIU00585factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Avanti Dazzle Womens Slip On Heeled Sandal with Flowers and Bar OrnamentAugust Jim Women Flats shoes,Slip-On Square Toe Butterfly Knot Comfort Single shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeSpot On Womens Ladies Diamond Pattern Fabric Upper Wellington BootsMsMushroom Woman's Satin With Buckle Dance shoes 3 Heel.SoftMoc Women's Caley 3 Three Strap Sport SandalMAIERNISI JESSI Unisex Men's Women's Inclined Straps Ankle Strap Stiletto High Heel Sandals At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Superga Unisex Adults’ 2950 Cotu Low-Top SneakersLifeStride Womens Corie Ankle Boottherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Sexy See Through White Lace Women Two Jumpsuit).Beslip Women's Fluffy Memory Foam Slippers Knit Winter Warm Indoor shoes Faux Fur Clog House SlippersShevalues High Elastic Bath Slippers Raised Footbed Quick Dry Shower Sandal Ultra Lightweight Cozy House Slippers LB-M However,Womens Ladies Autumn Winter High Boots Round Head Sleeve Over The Knee Long Boots Show Slender Tube Knitted Mau Boots,High,35Skyseen PU Leather Vintage Messenger Bag Shoulder Handbag Crossbody Bags I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Ryka Women's Stance SMT Jet Ink bluee Chrome Silver Winter bluee Sneaker

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