The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. CYBLING Women's Warm Snow Boots Winter Anti-Slip Fur Lined Ankle Short Booties Waterproof Outdoor shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,CYBLING Women's Classic Lace Up Winter Knee High Boots Cold Weather Fur shoes Keep Warm Combat BootsCYBLING Women's Classic Winter Snow Boots Buckle Strap Suede Leather Warm Fur Lined Outdoor Ankle Booties Calaier Womens Cayear Fashion Designer High Heel Open Toe 11CM Stiletto Zipper Sandals shoesBar III Womens Vaylap Closed Toe Knee High Fashion Bootsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, CYBLING Women's Over The Knee Boots Fold Cuff Buckle Strap Full Fur Lined Flat Winter Warm Sonw Bootsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Bar III Womens Diandra Closed Toe Knee High Fashion Boots, Malbec, Size 7.0Women's Bag Big Bag Killer's Bag Single Shoulder Handbag Single Shoulder Bag HandbagWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,AmoonyFashion Women's Frosted Solid Pull-On Low-Heels Pumps-shoes,BUSDT003209Sandals Stilettos Trendy Tip Sandals Girls Summer Thick with Heels Pointed shoes Fashionable Thick Heel Sandals 10cm Walking Feet Fashion Joker (color Red, Size 37)Ladies Booties, Fall Winter Pointed Side Zipper Mid Heel Thick Heel Martin Boots Wear- Resistant Non-Slip Women's Fashion Boots (color A, Size 39)Twinkle UU Ladies flip-Flops Woman Leather Sandals Soft Leather Casual Open Toe Women Summer high Heels I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Women's Booties Leather mid Heel Round Head Fleece Lined Warm Boots Retro Ethnic Style Cotton shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Pleaser Womens STDUS708 C GCH Platform Dress Sandal), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, T-JULY Slippers Ladies Wedges Sandals Thick Soles Waterproof Platform Retro High Heels Leather shoesand Merrell Womens Around Town Thong Buckle Sandals). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Superb Zone Spring Women shoes Embroidered Canvas shoes Increased Boots,Red,5MEIZOKEN Womens Crisscross Wedge Sandals Soft PU Leather Open Toe shoes Ladies Ankle Strap Non-Slip Mid Heel Sandalduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). WANGZHAO Handbag, Shoulder Bag, Satchel, Female Bag, Korean Version, Casual Fashion Lady, Pure color, Square, and Simple.Alexis Leroy Women's Warm Mid Calf Snow BootLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Beinfaith Women's Genuine Leather Chunky Heel Pumps Slip ONSWomen's Boots, Large Size Women's shoes PU Fabric Belt Buckle Boots Plush Lining Non-Slip Soles Martin Boots, Comfortable Casual shoes,Black,40And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Marc Fisher Womens Omalla SandalDockers by Gerli Women's 40th203-790660 Low-Top Sneakers.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Hot Elegant Sandals Women High Heels Round Toe with Buckle Square Heel Red White shoes Ladies shoesWolverine W10468 Womens Fairmont Steel-Toe Hiker Work shoes 5D (M) US Black Women's Booties, Winter Thick Heel Suede Pointed High Heels Martin Boots Ladies Large Size Fashion Ankle Boots (color A, Size 42)Jellypop Margaret Womens Ankle BootsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: WeenFashion Women's Pu Round-Toe Kitten-Heels Solid Pumps-shoes, AMGDX004598WeenFashion Women's PU Closed Toe Kitten-Heels Solid Sandalsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Liliana Women Leatherette Open Toe Clasp Ankle Strap Stacked Sandal CG04 - White LeatheretteT-JULY Women Boots Round Toe Down Mid Calf Snow Boots Female Plush Winter Warm Zip up shoes Sewing Wedges Ladies Booties There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeHaflinger Felt Slippers Everest Noblesse, Dark blueePeerage FIC Lori Women Wide Width Leather Dress Pump for Work Or Fancy Attire (Size & Measurement Charts).Joe's Jeans Women's Kitty VI FlatAlfani Women's Pyper Platform Wedge Sandals, Black Pale, Size 9.5 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Cambridge Select Women's Peep Toe Slip-On Platform Stiletto High Heel PumpElsa Wilcox Women Trendy Close Toe Chunky Mid Heel Zipper Dress Short Booties Sparkle Pearl Wedding Ankle Bootstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Women Patent Leather Wedges Sneakers Casual Lace-Up Basket Comfortable Platform Trainers Walking shoes).T-JULY Female Summer Breathable Soft Leather shoes Woman Flat Low Heel Bowknot Hollow Out Leather Slip On shoesT-JULY Women Height Increasing Platform shoes Spring Autumn Korean Hidden Heel Flock Fashion Wedge Casual shoes However,KEEN Womens Hush Lea CNX ClogAllhqFashion Women's Pull-On Patent Leather Solid Low-Heels Pumps-shoes,FBUDD011438 I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.T-JULY Winter Women Over The Knee Boots Sexy Lace up Square Rubber Flock Flats Heels shoes

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