The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Elliz Women's Memory Foam Lace Trimmed Bow Slippers, BeigeThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Panda Software Womens Casual Loafers Leather Driving MoccasinsDear Time Flip Flop Bling Rhinestones Summer Women Flat Thong Sandals AmoonyFashion Women's Blend Materials Open Toe Low Heels Zipper Solid SandalsAmoonyFashion Women's Sheepskin Kitten-Heels Open-Toe Studded Buckle Sandalsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Aerosoles Womens Happy Hour Flat Sandaland molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. AmoonyFashion Women's Pointed Closed Toe Pull On Silk Solid Spikes Stilettos Pumps shoesKalra Creations Mojari Indian Women shoes Leather Punjabi Juti Handmade Wedding FlatWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Yuanli Women's Mesh Slip-On Walking shoesEoyles gy Cute Group of Flamingos Women's Slip Resistant Lightweight Running Boat shoesIndosole Pantai Travel shoes RedCotswold Womens Barrington Slip on Loafer shoes Pewter Size UK 8 EU 42 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Eoyles gy bluee Chamomile Flowers Pretty Women Slip Resistant Lightweight Running Sports shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Eoyles gy Flamingo Bird and Toucan Women's Slip Resistant Lightweight Running Boat shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Eoyles gy Hand Drawn Pink Flamingo Bird Mint Beautiful Women Slip Resistant Lightweight Running Sports shoesand BOLUOYI 2019 Party Wear Heels for Women Retro Women's Pointed High Heels shoes Anti Skidding Wild Sandals Casual Slipper). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Minitoo Women's Bridal Satin Sandals PumpLittle SU High Heels Sandals 16cm Fashion Ankle Strap shoes Party Pumps shoes Women Platform Sandalsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). York Zhu Women Boots - Lace up Mid-Heel Suede Leather Boots Black Ankle BootsKAOKAOO Women's Over The Knee Reversible Winter Short Jeans Thigh High BootsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Munro Women's Cruise Black Woven Fabric slip-ons 8 MHush Puppies Womens Ladies Maltese Collar BootsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Ryka Womens Tenacity Cross TrainerNine West Women's Ivarene Satin Luxe Flat Sandal.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Pull Back shoes Korean Version of The Wild Canvas shoes shoes White shoes (color H, Size 42)JIEEME Ladies Sexy Square Heel Genuine Leather Pearl Black High Heels Women shoes VANELi Womens Shera Closed Toe Ballet FlatsAdeeSu Womens Platform Spun gold Bowknot Metal Ornament Frosted BootsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: AdeeSu Womens Bows Solid Bucket-Style Urethane Boots SXC03724Weiwei Women's Beach Sandals and Slippers, Summer Fashion Metal Buckles Heel Sandalsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.TARSHIN Single shoes Spring and Autumn Women's Net Boots Hollow High-Heeled Spring and Autumn Mesh Yarn Boots Mesh BootsTARSHIN Single shoes Spring and Summer Black Thick with Shallow Mouth Professional Work Small Leather shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeWeenFashion Women's Cow Imitated Suede High-Heels Closed-Toe Boots with ThreadT-JULY Fashion High Heel Open Toe Sandals Gladiator Sandals shoes New shoes Sexy Ladies shoes.Miz Mooz Womens Thayer Fashion BootMeiren High Heel Women Wild Korean Version Pointed Sexy Women's shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, T-JULY Woman Casual Breathable Mesh Wedge Platform White Sneakers Ladies Platform Flat SneakersT-JULY Women's Over-The-Knee Autumn Winter Casual Boots shoes High Heels Fashion Lace Up Platform Plus Size 35-43therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (T-JULY Fashion Suede Tassels Boot Ankle High Pumps for Women Cotton Martin shoes High Heels Slip-on Dress Loafer).Skull Happy Halloween Womens Slip On Canvas shoesFox In The Flowers Birthday Decorations Canvas Sneakers Women However,Giles Jones Wedge Flip-Flops Flat Sandals for Women,Boho Weave Bead Open Toe Buckle Beach shoesLink Womenss Lace-Up Walking Shiny Sneakers (Big Kid Adults) I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Tropical bluee Palm Forest Sneaker Women Walking

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