The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Spring Step Women's Gretta Sandals color Black Leather SandalsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Mona flying Womens Leather Platform Wedge Slides Sandals for Women Slip On Casual SandalsDune London Women's Penelope Boot Burgundy Dearfoams Women's Microsuede Plush Trim Scuff Slipper RedTredters Women's Quincy Pump, Black, 6.0 M USgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Lucky Brand Womens Giovanna Ballet Flatand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Rieker Women Loafers Pink, (pink) 51946-31Labato Women's Summer Thong Flat Sandals T-Strap Bohemian Rhinestone Slip on Flip Flops shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Kenneth Cole REACTION Womens Log Line Ankle BootieCalaier Womens Caorder Pointed Toe 1CM Flat Slip on Flats shoesBtrada Women Fashion Square Toe Ankle Boots Square Low Heel Booties Side Zipper Short Boots Winter shoesSpring Step Women's Dora Sandals color Withe Leather Sandals I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Schutz Womens Zach Fabric Open Toe Ankle Strap Classic Pumps), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. AdeeSu Womens Backpacking Round-Toe Casual Slip-Resistant Leather Flats shoes SDC04433), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, MET RXL Autumn shoes Ladies Thin shoes MOM Fashion shoesand Dee Keller Womens Sienna Fold Over Heeled Bootie Navy). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Tamarac by Slippers International Women's Low Molly Slipper BlitzPleaser Women's fury-06 Ankle Bootduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Jim Hugh Womens Mid Boots Cool Boots Summer Women shoes Round Toe Mid Calf Sexy Air Mesh Lace-up Boots Square Heel Breathable Female High Heels Womens Mid BootsPerfect-looking Women's High Heels Wedding shoes Heel Woman Purps Sexy Women's High Heels shoes PartyLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Nanette Nanette Lepore Womens Gillian MuleWeiPoot Women's Studded Blend Materials Kitten-Heels Buckle Open-Toe SandalsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Rampage Women's Isla Fashion Riding BootsMeiren Flat shoes Embroidered shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Bogs Women's AMMA 3 Point FLIP-WYUBIN Winter Plus Velvet Snow Boots, Sports and Leisure Non-Slip Female Snow Boots, color, Size and Variety of Choices (color Black, Size EU 40 US 7.5 UK 6.5 JP 25cm) WeiPoot Women's Pu Solid Buckle Open-Toe Kitten-Heels Sandals, EGHLH007251Lucky Brand Womens Fausst Ankle BootThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: AmoonyFashion Women's Microfibre Low-Heels Round Toe Solid Lace-Up Pumps-shoes, BUSDT003541AmoonyFashion Women's Solid Pu High-Heels Buckle Open-Toe Sandals, BUTLT007416factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.The Flexx Women's Full Time SneakerWomen Summer High Heels Sandals Fashion Ankle Straps shoes ( color Yellow , Size 35 ) There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeWomen's shoes PVC Spring Summer Club shoes Heels Stiletto Heel Crystal Heel Sparkling Glitter for Wedding Party & EveningExing Womens's Boots, Fall Winter Round Head Ankle Boots Ladies High Heel.AmoonyFashion Women's Open-Toe Kitten-Heels Pu Solid Zipper Sandals, BUTLT007294Rieker Women’'s M37a0 Hi-Top Trainers bluee At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, BalaMasa Womens Low-Heel Zipper Solid Above-The-Knee Black Suede Boots ABL09840 - 8 B(M) USBoots for Women, Autumn and Winter Large Size Flat Low Heel Snow Boots, Warm, Breathable, Non-Slip Bootstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (MEIZOKEN Womens Open Toe Platform Chunky Heel Sandals Sexy Ankle Strap High Heel Comfort Club Party Pump Gladiator shoes).U-MAC Womens Wedge Thong Platform Sandal Platform Beaded Rhinestone Dress Sandals Bohemia shoes Plus SizeLucky Brand Womens Florene Slides However,Womens Low Heel Lace Up Ankle Boots Punk Boots for Ladies Fall Winter Snow shoes Martin BootsBugatti Women Pumps Haven Beige, (Grey) V49696R-170 I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Women's Wedge Platform Sandals High Heels Cross-Tied Ankle-Wrap Sandals Summer Peep Toe Beach Bohemia shoes

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