The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. AIWEIYi Elegant Womens Fashion Pointed Toe Thick High Heels Platform Pumps Dress shoes BlackThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,AIWEIYi shoes Woman Square Toe Thick Heel Lace up Platform Dress shoes BlackAIWEIYi Womens Hidden Wedges Ankle Boots Lace up Warm Winter Snow Boots Black Converse Mens Street Leather Mid Top SneakerVoovix Water shoes Men Women Quick Dry Barefoot Aqua Socks Swim Surf Beach Yoga Poolgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, AIWEIYi Womens Leopard Print Hidden Wedges Knee High Boots Brownand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Ellie shoes Womens 532-mia Platform Dress SandalSNJ Womens Cut Out Strappy Buckle Sling Back Chunky High Heel SandalsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,AIWEIYi Womens Elegant Square High Heel Over The Knee Boots BlackAIWEIYi Womens Print Closed Round Toe Thick High Heels Lace up Platform Ankle Boots BlackCarlos by Carlos Santana Womens Reagan Knee High BootPleaser Womens RADIANT-708 C B Sandals I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. AIWEIYi Womens Patent Leather Thick High Heels Back Lace up Over the Knee Boots Black), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. AIWEIYi Womens Faux Suede Pointed Toe Tassel Block Heels Ankle Booties Black), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, AIWEIYi Womens Round Toe Slouched Low Heel Knee High Boots Blackand AIWEIYi Womens Closed Toe Chunky High Heels Knee High Boots Belt Bukles Warm Thigh High Boots Black). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, DBDK Women's High Platform Ghillie Ankle Strappy Round Closed Toe Wrapped WedgeNike Free 4.0 V3 Men Sneakers Dark Grey Challenge Red 579958-002during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Pinup Couture Womens BELLA-31 BPU Platform Pump BrownReebok Womens Cl Lthr X Face Walking shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Pleaser Womens RADIANT-708BHG C PP SandalsBCBGeneration Womens Helen Bootie Ankle BootAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?AIWEIYi Ladies Military Boots Pointed Toe Cutouts Square Heel Boots Lace up Platform Ankle Boots BrownAIWEIYi Womens Round Closed Toe Back Lace up Thick High Heels Knee High Boots Thigh High Boots Black.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).AIWEIYi Womens Ballet shoes Flat Round Toe Oxford Dress shoes BrownAIWEIYi Womens High Heel shoes Fashion Platform Lace-Up Martin Boots Black Dr. Scholl's C-Vixen W Flats WomenAerosoles Womens Plush Around Wedge SandalThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: PUMA Women's Suede Tssl Wn BrownKeds Womens Glimmer Felt Sneakerfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.AIWEIYi Womens Faux Sued Pointed Toe Fur Lining Stilettos High Heels Ankle Boots BlackAIWEIYi Womens Genuine Suede Leather Round Toe Flat Ankle High Winter Fur Snow Boots Black There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeAIWEIYi Womens Print Wedge Heel Ankle Strap High Heels Strappy Sandals BlackAIWEIYi Womens Sweet Bow Ankle Strap High Heels Dress Pump shoes White.Pleaser Womens ADORE-708N BPTPU M SandalsPleaser Women's Teeze-06 CRPU Dress Pump At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, AIWEIYi Womens Sweet Bow Chunky Heel Dress Pump Mary Janes shoes PurpleAIWEIYi Womens Stilettos High Heels Slippers Platform Flip Flops Blacktherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (AIWEIYi Womens Platform High Heel Mary Jane Pumps Dress shoes Red).AIWEIYi Womens Leopard Print Pointed Toe Ankle Strap Platform Stilettos High Heel Dress Sandals BlackAIWEIYi Womens Pearl Chains Pointed Toe Chunky High Heel shoes Black White However,Pleaser Womens ADORE-709MMRS SHG SCH SandalsG.H. Bass & Co. Womens Lola Mule I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.AIWEIYi Women's Summer Style Sandals Bling Rhinestone Platform Sandals gold

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