The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Marc Fischer Women's Zala Pumps in Black LeaThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,GENNIA MEKASIN - Women Basic Ankle Leather Boots with Block Heel 7 cmGENNIA RALAO. - Women Closed Toe Leather Pumps Stiletto Heel with Laces Closure Badgley Mischka Womens Ivy PumpPrince Women`s Warrior Clay Court Tennis shoes White and Lemon-(8P434-119U15)generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Vionic Women's Anchor Flat Moccasin Black Lizard Size 10and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Rachel Zoe Womens Polly Flatform Braid PlatformAquatalia Womens Pheobe Suede PumpWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

Walking Cradles Women& 39;s Kerry White Leather 13 WW US

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Pleasantlyday High Heels shoes Styles Fashion Design Women SexyBorn Womens 'Zuniga' Motorcyle Boot, Dark Grey, US 9.5New Balance Womens Burn X 1 Speed Lacrosse shoesChelsea & Zoe Kimball Women's Boots I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Wolky Womens 401 Tsunami Bronze Sandal - 42), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Rockport Cobb Hill Collection Womens Cobb Hill Natashya Lace Boot Black), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Spring New Fashion Women sandals British Style Oxford shoes Genuine Leather low heel sexy ladies Flats shoesand Bernardo Womens Steel New Metallic Reign Leather Strappy Sandals 10). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Carhartt Mens CSA 8-inch Wtrprf Insulated Work Boot Steel Safety Toe Cmr8859 Industrial BootNew Rock Newrock 7934 1 Metallic Black Leather Buckle West Steel Heel shoes Bootduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Loeffler Randall Women's Beatrix Pinked Edge LoaferTamaris - Light Pink - 12361620541Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Vince Womens Oren Slide MuleMoon Boot Anversa Wool WP Womens BootsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Black Tan Forsake Patch - Women's Waterproof Premium Leather Hiking BootHeight Increasing shoes for men. Be taller 7 cm 2.75 inches. Model Alexandro.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Tretorn - Oeresund - 47311110Cobb Hill Women's Rubey Tstrap Sandal, Black Lthr, 090 W US Nanette Lepore Womens Wilma Leather Round Toe Fashion SneakersCalaier Womens Caparag Open Toe 16.5CM Wedge Heel Buckle Sandals shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Mtxc Women's Natsuiro Kiseki Cosplay Rinko Tamaki Uniform shoes BrownPelle Moda Women's Oana Dress Pumpfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Steve Madden Shaarp Women US 8.5 Black Platform HeelGeox Womens W Elidia 2 Moccasin There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeApex Women's Julia Wrap AroundAlegria Women's Kaitlyn Slip-On Black.women-in Genuine Leather Women shoes Spring Pointed Toe Pumps Thin High Heel Pumps Kid Suede 7.5 cm Heel Party Ladies shoesblack Giardini shoes Woman Low Sneakers P805231D 505 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Nike Womens Odyssey React 2 Flyknit Womens Ah1016-800TuffRider Women's Baroque Field Short Boots, Black, 6 Regular [Apparel]therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Women's Florsheim Supreme Moc Toe Eurocasual Oxford).Icebug Women's DTS3 RB9X Gore-TEX Traction Running shoesLowa Mens Vantage GTX Mid However,Coconuts By Matisse Women's Alabama Ankle BootieHush Puppies Women's Hatha Oxford I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Nike Men's Air Zoom Flight 96 Basketball shoes

ECCO shoes Men's Contoured Brogue Oxford, Camel Cocoa Brown, 40 EU 6-6.5 M US BAFFIN LADIES ICE FIELD BOOT BLACK SZ 6 11-74806

House of Cambridge Mens Full Sheepskin Slippers with Flexible Lightweight Sole