The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Mens Converse All Star Ox Low Top Chuck Taylor Chucks Lace Up Trainer 7-16The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Nafanio Winter Fur Slippers Women Cartoon Crown Soft Plush Warm Indoor Platform Flock Women Home shoesIndoor Panda Slippers Boots Flat Furry Home Cartoon Women Unisex Couple Animal Warm Non-Slip shoes Flats KemeKiss Women Simple Boots ZipperPUMA Womens Basket Heart WN's Sneakergenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Zgshnfgk Women's Perforated Cutout Chunky Block Stacked Heel Ankle Bootie Bootsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. DKNY Womens Seaport Platform Pointed Toe LoafersCallisto Womens Surfer Open Toe CasualWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Glad You Came Summer Sport Women Running shoes Outdoor Breathable pink Mesh Sneakers Woman Athletic Cushioning Walking shoes TrainersWater shoes Outdoor Wading Five Fingers shoes Fitness shoes Men's Large Size Quick Dry shoes Sports Aqua shoes Amphibious shoesAdeeSu Womens Cold Lining Water_Resistant Soft-Ground Urethane Sandals SLC03771FizaiZifai Women Summer Wedge Sandals shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. KingRover Women's Suede Chunky Heel Pump - Office, Work, Dressy - Pointy Toe Pump), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Merrell Women's Chateau Mid Lace WTPF Ankle Boot), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, HUYP Personality Slippers Girls Wear Shorts Flip Flops Women's Wild Beach shoes (Size 35)and Grasshoppers Women's Janey II Skinny Stripe Sneakers). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, BIGTREE Women Long Boots Comfortable Vintga Studded Zipper Black Fall Winter Faux Suede Mid-Calf BootsArtfaerie Womens Pointed Toe Ankle Strap Chunky Heel D'Orsay Pumps Patent Leather Court shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Autumn Winter Fashion Slip-On Retro Woman Ankle Boots Square Heel Women shoes Western BootsLifeStride Women's POSH Pump, Black, 10 M USLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Agodor Womens Flats Suede Leather Pointed Toe Slingback Mules Embroidery Slip on Outdoor Dress SlippersBebe Womens Famke Open Toe Casual Slide SandalsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Zalezing Comfortable Women's Elegant Lace Side Zipper Inside Platform High-Heel Ankle-high Dress Boots Suede BootsSkechers Women's Cozy Campfire-Microfiber Slipper Boot with Bow, Natural, 7.5 M US.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Sexphd LED Light up shoes High Top Men Women Light up shoes USB Charging Velcro Flashing SneakersLow-Heeled Middle-Aged Women's shoes in Summer Comfortable with Roman shoes Non-Slip Mother Sandals Alfani Womens Morgaan Closed Toe Classic Pumps, Navy, Size 5.5Autumn and Winter Women's shoes, Cotton Boots, Cotton Boots, Big Yards, Student BootsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: DecoStain Women's Leisure Ink Painting Pating Increased Internal Height SneakersMen Women High Top Casual Sneaker Flower Skeleton Canvas shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.AAKOPE& Hot Sexy Sandals Women High Heels Pumps Dress shoes Women Sandals Women's shoesBelieved Leather Ankle Boots for Women Fashion Flats Short Booties Casual shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeJedi fight back USB LED Light shoes Fashion Glowing for Women High-top Ankle Boots Winter Women's Snow BootsVictoria Inglesa Lona, Women’s Trainers.Rocket Dog Womens Mass Library Pu Ankle BootBR Women's Cute Terry Open Toe Slide Scuff Slippers Beige At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, FOR U DESIGNS Dogs Cartoon Printed Boys Girls Sports Sneakers Women Men Casual shoes Comfortable Flatspink flowers 2019 Summer Fashion High Heel Women Sandals Rome Snake Wrap Strap Fine Heel High Heel Ladies shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (DecoStain Women's Pointed Toe Glitter Stilettos High Heels Pumps Classic Party Evening Work Dress shoes).Sam Carle Women's Pump,Sexy Temperament Anti-Slip gold Silver Wedding Party Pumps1TO9 Womens Studded Rhinestones Metal Buckles Metal Ornament Beige Polyurethane Pumps-shoes - 7.5 B(M) US However,Skechers Womens Reggae - Sew Me - Boho Woven Strappy Slingback SandalAwhitezoom Women's Lightweight Athletic Walking Sneakers Breathable Tennis Road Running shoes US4.5-10.5 pink Red I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Womens Comfort Wedge Thong Flip Flops Sandals

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