The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. AmoonyFashion Women's PU Pull-On Round Closed Toe Low-Heels Pumps-shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,AmoonyFashion Women's Round Closed Toe Lace-up Pu Assorted color Pumps-shoesAmoonyFashion Women's PU Low-Heels Pointed-Toe Solid Lace-up Pumps-shoes AnnaKastle Womens Pointy Toe Ankle Bootie Kitten Heel Pumps Dress shoesOwen Moll Women Flats, Fashion Slip On Ballet Crystal Pointed Toe shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, AmoonyFashion Women's Pointed Toe Frosted Solid High-Heels Pumps-shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Slingbacks Thick Heels Pumps Women Buckle Square Toe Flock Footwear shoes Cross-Tied Casual shoes Womanpink town Women's Fur Waterproof Lace Up Winter High Top Snow BootsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,AmoonyFashion Women's Pull-On Pointed Closed Toe Low-Heels PU Solid Pumps-shoesAmoonyFashion Women's Pull-On Closed-Toe Kitten-Heels PU Woven Pumps-shoesAlomoc Unisex Open Toe Fleece Felt Slippers Indoor Family Guest shoes Set Hang Strap (6 Pairs shoes & 1 Big shoes Bag)Bucketfeet Dots Mid Women's Fashion Sneakers I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. AmoonyFashion Women's Solid Patent Leather Kitten Heels Square Closed Toe Pull On Pumps-shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. AmoonyFashion Women's Peep-Toe Kitten-Heels Soft Material Solid Lace-up Sandals), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, AmoonyFashion Women's Solid Frosted High Heels Peep Toe Buckle Sandalsand AmoonyFashion Women's Spikes Stilettos Soft Material Solid Zipper Peep Toe Sandals). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Btrada Women Wedge Sneakers Slip On Canvas Cushion Height Increasing Slimming Rocking PlatformMaker's shoes Espadrille Wedge Sandal (9, gold)during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). AllhqFashion Women's Kitten-Heels PU Solid Pull-On Square Closed Toe Pumps-shoesAllhqFashion Women's Lace up Kitten Heels Imitated Suede Solid Mid Top BootsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? AllhqFashion Women's Frosted Round Closed Toe Solid Ankle-high High-Heels BootsSlippers Autumn Winter Cotton Hemp Indoor shoes Soft Memory Foam Washable for Women Keep Warm Anti-SlipAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Women's Sneakers Women’s Lightweight Casual Running SneakersYouth Girls Tennis shoes Women's Casual Walking shoes,Casual Mesh-Comfortable Work shoes (color Black, Size 7 US)shoes Court shoes Women's shoes High Heel Block Heel Retro Fashion Thick Heel Female Comfortable Shallow Mouth Pointed Haiming (color Burgundy, Size 34).

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).AmoonyFashion Women's High-Heels Pu Solid Buckle Peep-Toe SandalsAmoonyFashion Women's Round Closed Toe High Heels Solid Lace Up Pumps-shoes Divaz Womens Ladies Ivana Block Heel Ankle BootsGusha Women's Laced Snow Boots Casual shoes Warm shoes Winter BootsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Women's Fashion Personality Sandals Summer Stiletto Heel Toe Ankle Pumps Large Size High Heels SIZE 32-46Marco Tozzi Abbeville 22103 - Navy Metallic Combi (Textile) Womens Pumpsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.AmoonyFashion Women's Open-Toe Hook-and-Loop Cow Leather Solid Low-Heels SandalsAmoonyFashion Women's Mesh Legging Zipper Peep Toe High Heels Solid Sandals There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeEllie shoes Women's 414 Shelby Spectator PumpClarks Desert Boot - Dark Grey White Multi (Suede) Womens Boots.Clarks Womens Blake Jewel Flat SandalsDr. Scholl's Women's Really Ballet Flat,Black,7 M US At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Little Happiness- Fashion 2019 Autumn Women's shoes Ladies Casual Flat shoes Comfortable Lace-up Ladies Vulcanized shoesDREAM PAIRS Women's Acker Knee High Bootstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Kyle Walsh Pa Women Ankle Boots Women Casual shoes Vintage Female shoes Waterproof).Wallhewb Women's Fashion Buckle Ankle Strap Square Toe Cut Out Contrast color Block Medium Heel Sandals shoes Antiskid Rubber Sole Hot Pants Girls Soft No Grinding Feet White 4 M US Strap SandalsPinup Couture Womens Smitt20 Rpu Dress Pump However,Corkys Womens Liz Fashion Woven Flats shoes (Black Silver, 6 B(M) US)OUTWOODS Ladies Bork-63 Toe Loop Vegan Leather Sandals I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.KingRover Women's Knee High Frosted Boots with Thin High Heel Sexy Women PU Leather Boots for Fashion Girls

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