The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Adidas Men's Flux By9423 Low-Top SneakersThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Bearpaw Men's Traditional Shearling SlipperU.S.POLO ASSN. Men's's Sherman Suede Hi-Top Trainers Joules Men's Halmore Chelsea BootsDiadora - Sneakers Titan Reborn BARRA for Man and Womangenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Ted Baker Men's Ternur Text Am Fashion Sneakerand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. New Balance 1005COY Waterproof Insulated Knee Hi Flood Overboots Military BootsAdidas Men's Terrex Swift R2 Low Rise Hiking BootsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

Reebok Men's Zpump Fusion 2.5 Running shoes

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Skechers Performance Men's Go Outdoor-Voyage Walking shoesEnval Soft shoes Men Low Sneakers 1210244 AsphaltAdidas Mens SUCIU ADV Athletic & SneakersNike Metcon Dsx Flyknit Mens Cross Training shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Puma Men's RBR Wssp Booty Low-Top Sneakers), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Dickies Mens Thermolite Waterproof Steel Toe Safety Wellington Boots), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Diadora Unisex Adults’ B.Elite L Trainersand POLO RALPH LAUREN Men's Faxon Low-Canvas Jrsy HTHR Sneaker). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Lacoste Marice 119 1 CMA shoes NavyNike Men's Roshe Ld-1000 Running shoes Blackduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Clarks Men's Amieson Limit BroguesDC shoes Mens shoes Vandium Se shoes for Men Adys200067Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Jordan Men's Hydro III Retro Slide SandalAdidas Men's Alphabounce Beyond Running shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Wilson Men's Kaos Comp Tennis shoesAdidas Mens CF Ultimate Bball Cf Ultimate Bball.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).JOHNSCLIFFE TYPHOON Waterproof Super Lightweight Leather Hiking Boots MensPuma Men's Trainers Red Cabernet Cabernet Black Oregon Yukon 295385 47 Chainsaw Predective Rubber Safety Boot, 47Lotus Tan Curtis Casual shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Napapijri Vail 1 Mens Beach Fantasy MConverse - Leather Allstar Ox shoes in White, 6 UK Adultfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.ASICS Men's Gt-3000 5 Ankle-High Running shoesNIKE Womens Internationalist JCRD Winter Trainers 859544 Sneakers shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeRockport Men's Storm Surge Waterproof SneakerFlorsheim Mens Corbetta Bike Toe Slip Corbetta Bike Toe Slip.PF Flyers Center HI BlackAdidas Unisex Kids' Stan Smith Trainers At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, INMONARCH Mens Purple Wine and Black Wedding shoes MJ015437INMONARCH Mens golden Wedding shoes Ethnic MJ014142therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (INMONARCH Mens Teal Printed Wedding shoes MJ010566).INMONARCH Mens Yellow Jute shoes Wedding Groom MJ013928INMONARCH Mens Yellow Jute Wedding shoes Handmade MJ014194 However,L-X Unisex Sport Flip Flops Sandals Anti Slip Support Outdoor Lightweight Comfortable Leisure Home Bathroom Slippers, Brown 1, 40EUNew Balance Unisex Adults’ U520-cd-d Low-Top Sneakers I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.INMONARCH Mens Cream Wedding shoes Paisley Printed MJ015186

FFTX Men Leather Sandals Fashion Water shoes Summer Soft Cowhide Beach Slipper Driver Club USA Mens Leather Made in Brazil Westport Loafer

CAMPER Romeo 36640-002 Mens Trainers